Technical Info Tubing

32 TUBING / HREN / TYČE 
SIMAX: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
In 1837 The Kavalier Glassworks was established, and it has been making glass ever since, in fact it is the oldest technical
glass factory in Europe. Over the years many changes have taken place, and today it is considered an important producer
world-wide. The glass made is borosilicate and is marketed under its own registered brand name SIMAX.
SIMAX glass, by its chemical composition and properties, ranges in the group of clear, hard, borosilicate 3.3,
characterised with high heat and chemical stability, specifi ed by international standard ISO 3585, resp. CSN ISO 3585,
and, ASTM E 438 Type I, Class A. It entirely meets the demands as set out in the said standards. From SIMAX glass awide
spectrum of technical as well as laboratory glass products, industrial apparatus, household boiling and oven-ware as
well as decorative glassware are manufactured.
Owing to its properties, SIMAX glass is used in such areas where the highest demands are made on products froma
viewpoint of heat and chemical stability as well as neutrality to substances or preparations contacting them, e.g. in
chemistry, petro-chemistry, food, power supply, metallurgy, health service, microbiology, pharmaceuticals, mechanical
engineering and laboratories.
SIMAX tubing, rods, profi les and capillary tubes are used, in the production of laboratory glassware, industrial apparatus,
pilot plant, pipe lines, drainage, decorative glass, solar collectors, light fi ttings, to name but afew. Products made from
SIMAX glass are smooth and nonporous, transparent, catalytically indiff erent, corrosion-resistant even in exacting
operations, suffi ciently homogenous and without presence of heterogenous particles.
Simax glass matches the demanding environmental requirements and it is absolutely unexceptionable from an
ecological viewpoint.
SIMAX tubing, rod, profi les and capillary tubes are produced under very tight control, the tolerances are governed by the
most up to date computer technology.
The company´s entire production is produced under aquality system and is certifi ed under EN ISO 9001:2000 TUV CERT.
33TUBING / HREN / TYČE 
Physical data
Mean linear and thermal coeffi cient of expansion
_ (20 °C; 300 °C) according to ISO 7991 3,3 .10
6
K
–1
Transformation temperature Tg 525 °C
Glass temperature at 10
13
(upper chilling temperature) 560 °C
Viscosity d in dPa . s: 10
7,6
(softening temperature) 825 °C
10
4
(working range) 1,260 °C
Highest short-term admissible working range 500 °C
Density l at 20 °C 2.23 g. cm
–3
Modulus of elasticity E (Young’s modulus) 64.103 MPa
Poisson‘s ratio µ 0.20
Thermal conductivity h (20 to 100 °C) 1.2 W.m
–1
.K
–1
Temperature for specifi c electric resistance
108 Ω.cm (DIN 52326) t
klOO
250 °C
Logarithm of electric at 250 °C 8
bulk resistivity (Ω . cm) at 350 °C 6.5
Dielectric properties (1 MHz, 25 °C)
Permitivity ¡ 4.6
Loss factor tan b 37.10
–4
Refractive index (h = 587.6 nm) nd 1.473
Photoelastic constant (DIN 52314) K 4.0.10
–6
mm
2
.N
–1
SIMAX tubes and capillaries pressure resistance
Pressure resistance (p) calculation with aknown wall thickness (Wt) and agiven outside diameter (OD):
Wall thickness (Wt) calculation with agiven pressure resistance (p) and outside diameter (OD):
OD= outside diameter in mm Wt = wall thickness in mm
p = pressure resistance in bar K/S = admissible stress in N . mm
2
SIMAX borosilicate glass 3.3 admissible stress: K/S = 7 N . mm
–2
according to ČSN EN 1595 Standard:
Pressure Vessels Made of Borosilicate Glass 3.3; General Principles for Construction, Manufacturing and Testing.
Pressure resistance (p) aff ects, among others, the following:
• thermal diff erence between the inside and outside walls
• surface quality
working the ends
• compliance with assembling conditions in accordance with pressure vessels regulations
• tube length
The manufacturer may perform an exact calculation, where necessary.
Wt · 20 ·
OD-Wt
p =
K
S
OD· p
20 · + p
Wt =
K
S
34 TUBING / HREN / TYČE 
In addition, the following should be taken into consideration:
ČSN EN 1595:1998 Pressure Vessels Made of Borosilicate Glass 3.3 General Principles for Construction, Manufacturing
and Testing
ČSN EN 12585:1999 Glass Equipment, Pipes and Pipe Fittings. Piping and Pipe Fittings with aNominal Diameter of DN
15 to 1000. Compatibility and Interchangeability
Resistance to Temperature Variations
Resistance to temperature variations corresponds according to ISO 718 to the thermal diff erence between the hot test
piece and the cold water bath (room temperature), where the fi rst cracks appear on 50 per cent of samples, when these
will have been quickly dipped into the water bath. Resistance to temperature variations of tubes, capillaries and rods
depends on the wall thickness, shape and size of the cooled surface, surface condition, tension and fi nal working. Uneven,
ash heating or fast cooling may easily lead to cracking due to the resulting tension. It is recommended not to exceed
the thermal diff erence of 120 °C. At thicker walls, this thermal diff erence is limited to lower values. As for examples of
resistance to temperature variations of tubes and rods made of SIMAX borosilicate glass 3.3 some values measured
have been specifi ed hereinafter. These values may be considered indicators, because considerable diff erences may exist
among parts of the same sizes:
The manufacturer may perform an exact calculation, where necessary.
Chemical Composition
(main components in percentage by weight)
Chemical Durability
SIMAX borosilicate glass 3.3 is highly resistant to water eff ects, neutral and acid solutions, heavy acids and their
mixtures, to chlorine, bromine, iodine and organic compounds. Even in long-term eff ects and at temperatures above
100°C, this glass outstrips with its chemical durability most metals and other raw materials. Due to water and acid
eff ects the glass releases small amounts only, mostly those of monovalent ions. At the same time, on the glass
surface, there is formed avery thin, permeable siliceous gel layer, which ensures resistance to further eff ects. Hydrogen
uoride, hot phosphoric acid and alkaline solutions have an aff ect on the glass surface, depending on concentration and
temperature.
Wall thickness in mm Resistance to temperature variations in K



SiO
2
B
2
O
3
Na
2
O + K
2
O Al
2
O
3
. .
Class of Resistance to Water Eff ects (ISO ) HGB 
Class of Resistance to Acid E ects (ISO  aDIN ) Class S
Class of Resistance to Various Kinds of Lye (ISO ) Class A
35TUBING / HREN / TYČE 
Light Transmittance
Instructions for processing
SIMAX tubes, capillaries and rod material properties guarantee avery good workability in glass forming and dividing,
which is usual with technical glass. To remove temporary stress, which originates in processing, it is appropriate to
warm the glass through well up to atemperature of 550 °C, and, to leave it at this temperature over aperiod of time of
at maximum 30 minutes; as arule, in thin-walled products afraction of this time would suffi ce. With regard to glass
chemical durability the stabilization time should be as short as possible. For subsequent cooling down, the cooling
speeds have been recommended as per the below table:
Cooling speed
In the event that it is necessary to cool the product down several times, the sum of all the stabilization times at 550 °C
should not exceed two hours. SIMAX glass may be melted and joined with other brands of borosilicate glass of the same
type, without stress, and processed and stabilized at the same temperatures. SIMAX tubes, capillaries and rods may be
printed using silver- and copper-based diff usion colours and silk-screenprinting colours.
Wall thickness in mm
Range of temperature
560 to 490 °C 490 to 440 °C 440 to 20 °C
 °C /min  °C /mm up to  °C /min
°C /min  °C /min up to  °C /min
. °C /min . °C /min up to  °C /min
36 TUBING / RÖHREN / TYČE 
KAVALIER SIMAX: TECHNICAL CONDITIONS
Length
Standard lengths:
Tubing 1,500 +10 mm
–0 mm
Capillary 1,500 ±10 mm
Rod: diameter 3 to 6 mm 1,500 ±20 mm
diameter 7 to 16 mm 1,500 ±10 mm
diameter 18 to 30 mm 1,500 ±30 mm
Non-circular assortment 1,500 ±20 mm
Non Standard Lengths:
Both shorter and longer lengths can be produced to suit special requirements. For example; depending on outside
diameter and wall thickness, we can produce tubing up to 12 metres in length. Inquiries are most welcome.
Out-Of-Roundness
Tubing
<180 mm s
max
0.7 % of the outside diameter
Capillary
<10 mm s
max
1.0 % of the outside diameter
Rod
<20 mm s
max
1.0 % of the outside diameter
20 mm ≤ ≤30 s
max
1.5 % of the outside diameter
Wall Thickness Variance
The diff erence between the maximum and minimum wall thickness at arbitrary point of atube may not exceed 12 % of
the wall nominal thickness.
De ection
Tubes defl ection according to ISO 1101 may be as follows:
Outside diameter 4–<6 mm maximum 4.0 mm/1,500 mm
Outside diameter ≥6–<30 mm maximum 1.5 mm/1,000 mm
Outside diameter ≥30–<100 mm maximum 2.0 mm/1,400 mm
Outside diameter ≥100–≤180 mm maximum 2.5 mm/1,400 mm
Rods and capillaries are supplied with defl ection of maximum 4 mm over 1,500 mm of the product length.
Non-circular assortment is supplied as follows :
• tubes with defl ection of maximum 0.4 % of nominal length
• capillaries and rods with defl ection of maximum 0.6 % of nominal length
37TUBING / HREN / TYČE
Stress
Tubes
Rods are not normally annealed, however, rods 18 to 30 mm diameter can be delivered annealed, if requested by the
customer.
Profi les, and capillary tubes are not annealed.
Stones and tails
Stones Stones/ 1 kg of glass
Size <0.3 mm permitted
Size ≥0.3–<1.0 mm max. 2
Size ≥1.0–≤2.0 mm max. 1
Size >2.0 mm prohibited
Tails Tails/ 1 kg of glass
Size <0.3 mm permitted
Size ≥0.3–<1.0 mm max. 4
Size ≥ .0–≤3.0 mm max. 2
Size >3.0 mm prohibited
The grain size is considered as corresponding to stones or tail size.
Bubbles
Length
Bubbles length corresponds to the length of all bubbles ≥20 mm.
Permitted length of bubbles is 0.8 m/10 m of atube.
Bubbles <20 mm: 20 pcs/1 kg of glass.
Width
Bubbles wider than 1 mm are prohibited in tubes with adiameter of ≤100 mm.
Bubbles wider than 2 mm are prohibited in tubes with adiameter of >100 mm.
Note:
capillary bubble is abubble drawn in the direction of the length of aproduct in the form of acapillary with alength greater than 2 mm.
Outside diameter in mm < 40 40 ≤ 60 > 60
Internal stress over the tube length . MPa . nm/cm . MPa . nm/cm . MPa . nm/cm
Internal stress at the edge . MPa . nm/cm . MPa . nm/cm . MPa . nm/cm
38 TUBING / HREN / TYČE 
End Finish and Front Surfaces Perpendic ularity Deviation
Tubing
Tubes Tube Ends Front surfaces perpendicularity deviation
4 ≤ ≤ 5 not fl ame polished
5 < ≤ 100 ame polished 2.5
100 < ≤ 180 ame polished 4.0
In fl ame polishing the ends, wall thickness may get enlarged by 0.1 mm.
Capillaries and rods are not fl ame polished.
Profi les are not fl ame polished at the ends, with the exception of tubes fl uted inside, which are fl ame polished
at the ends.
Packing
Products are supplied in conveniently sized cartons, with suffi cient protection against damage in transportation
and storage.